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COVID-19 Lecture Series

Abstract: The talk briefly explains the variation of number of days with COVID19 confirmed cases, percentage of increment in a single day and in every 5 days as well as increase or decrease of cases with respect to previous day. In addition, how total number of COVID19 confirmed cases, recovered cases and deaths were distributed across Indian states. The lessons learnt from success story behind Indian states which mitigated deaths due to pandemic. Furthermore, post-pandemic scenario of medicine, science, judiciary and parliament will be detailed.

Abstract: The coronavirus outbreak, which originated in China, has infected more than 24 Lakh people till date. Its spread has left businesses around the world counting costs. As unexpected as it is disruptive, the global pandemic has huge social, economic, and political consequences. Today, all the countries are fighting a threat that is growing exponentially and puts most of their citizens at risk. This is a global war against an invisible enemy just like an earthquake. Researchers who study Earth’s movement are reporting a drop in seismic noise — the hum of vibrations in the planet’s crust — that could be the result of transport networks and other human activities being shut down. A reduction in seismic noise because of changes in human activity is a boon for geoscientists to study the Earth crust into more details. The effect of the lockdown has been dramatic in case of Air Pollution. In New Delhi, where flights have been diverted because smog shrouded the airport, the air pollution levels have dropped 71 percent in just one week. On March 20, the air had an unhealthy 91 micrograms per cubic meter of PM2.5. On March 27, just a couple days into the lockdown, that level fell to 26 micrograms per cubic meter. Anything above 25 is considered unsafe, according to the World Health Organization, as CNN reported. This slide Current environment requires lockdowns and quarantines which implies that the short term economic activity will be significantly hit but that is important to do. The traditional Assamese medicines should be studied scientifically to find out any clues regarding curing from the Covid 19 epidemic.

Abstract: The impact of Covid-19 pandemic on society cannot be overstated. There is no instance to the pandemic in our hyper-connected age. Its effects are terribly disruptive on many levels. As the number of COVID-19 cases continues to increase, governments around the world are imposing necessary measures to contain and mitigate the spread of the disease. This includes travel bans, school and workplace closure, event cancellation, and compulsory remote office impacting everything from the global economy to our very social stuff. The covid-19 pandemic has been effecting global scientific community a lot. As per a survey done by ResearchGate in mid of March, 2020 amongst few thousands of researchers across world shows that 82 % impact on scientific activities. In India even though in that period not much cases were reported but about 46 % scientists reported to be effected due to the pandemic situation. In this talk, it is discussed how indigenous nanotechnological intervention may help to have antimicrobial coating by nanoparticles on face mask. As we are located in a biodiversity hotspot zone with large numbers of herbs of medicinal value, they can be gainfully utilized to provide solution to have mask for all sorts people. Optical microscopic images of different available materials shows that multiple layers of some common cloths can control the permeability of coronavirus which has size range within 60-160 nm. There are many reports on utilization of nanomaterials like Ag, Au, Cu, TiO2, ZnO, nanocomposites of polymers, carbon quantum dots which have shown activity against other viruses like H1N1, HIV, Zika, influenza etc. So, nanotechnology may also help to develop some products active against covid-19. Interdisciplinary approaches where Biologist, Chemist, Data Science, Materials scientist, Engineers can jointly contribute for war against covid-19

Abstract: COVID-19, caused by a novel virus strain SARS-CoV-2, an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA betacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae is one of the biggest pandemics of the entire world. It is also termed as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) which shows the common symptoms like cough, fever, shortness of breath and fatigue, etc. Different 332 interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins have been discovered by an extensive study co-ordinated by Dr. Nevan Krogan’s research group of the Gladstone Institute, USA along with several collaborators. Among 332 interactions 66 druggable human proteins have been identified. Spike protein (S)-human GOLGA7-ZDHHC5 acyl-transferase, inhibition of lysosomal acidification, inhibition of V-ATPase74, modulation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRP) inhibitor, protease inhibitors, interferon-β (lung inflammation regulator) pathway are some effective pathways that could be targeted by 69 existing FDA approved drugs and compounds in clinical trials and/or pre-clinical trials. Already few small drug candidates, for example, Remdisivir, Favinapiravir, Galidesivir, Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Arbidol, Nitazoxanide, Ivermectin (peptide) and few more have been selected for repurposing against SARS-CoV-2; and the medication and treatment have already been started with few of these candidates which are showing positive results. Besides, plasma therapy that started by Max Hospital, Delhi is also discussed.

Abstract: The global pandemic COVID-19 has caused a death trolls of 184249 people and infected about 2638909 individuals. The causal organism is highly virulent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped positive sense single stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus with a genome size of nearly 26-32kb. It is referred as Betacoronavirus which belongs to the order Nidovirales, under the family Coronaviridae, subfamily Orthocoronavirinae. It causes mild to severe respiratory tract infection through Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 receptor. The symptoms are fever, tiredness, dry cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, diarrhoea, difficulty in breathing etc. As per WHO nearly 33 candidate vaccines are under preclinical trial. The drugs have been used to combat COVID-19 are chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, Remdesivir, Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Interferon-beta etc. and none of them are found to show efficacy against the disease. After crystallization of COVID-19 main protease (Mpro), Mpro has been tried as a potential drug target protein for inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication through inhibition of the viral polypeptide cleavage by medicinal plants derived bioactive markers. It was also found that along with western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine were also administered to the COVID-19 patients as combination therapy. In India, AYUSH ministry had advised to take selfcare with the leads from Ayurveda. Therefore, propose here, to take some potential leads from Ancient Knowledge based Indian Traditional System of Medicine and validate the potential of bioactive markers through current literature review and utilize the medicinal plants and spices of India as prophylactic measure against COVID-19.

Abstract:Pre- fabricated structures, scope of use and application challenges , Bamboo as a structural element and its mechanical properties ,Treatment of bamboo for use as a structural member ,Scope of using different types of connectors / joints in bamboo based structures (a) Description of some of the connectors / joints in bamboo based structures (b) Finite Element Analysis (FEA) based computational simulation of such connector / joint elements

Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly identified strain of coronavirus that causes illness ranging from effects similar to the common cold to fatal diseases in people across the world. This disease was first identified in early December 2019, and by the middle of March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) assessed COVID-19 as a pandemic. As on 27th April, 2020, there have been more than 30,03,392 confirmed cases, 2,07,096 death and 8,82,668 recovered has reported all over the world. The coronavirus COVID-19 is affecting 210 countries and territories around the world. To prevent the COVID-19, the doctor, scientist, researchers, biologist, pharmacologist, chemist are trying to find out a solution i.e. to develop drug, vaccine or other alternative medicine in this regards. A brief background on coronavirus, role of medicinal plant in treatment of COVID-19, utilization of medicinal plant treatment of mask (emerging protective measure), specific bioactive molecules from plant sources identified (through screened and molecular docking) for treatment of COVID-19, list of Indian medicinal plant are reported here. Further, the Govt. of India initiative regarding use of medicinal plant, eat right food to fight against COVID-19, and traditional medicine/food of Arunachal Pradesh to build immunity or relief cough, fever, headache etc are also reported.

Abstract: The positive impact of the pandemic Covid19 is discussed. SWOT analysis for the individual homes in relation to Covid19. The positive impact on the air pollution, water pollution and land pollution is elaborated and also its impact on the animals and birds. The behavioural shift of the people, with respect to the health advice is observed. As the pandemic is invisible, behavioural change management for homes such as combating the comfort zone, rise in expectation, reinventing ourselves, challenge for women and personal space are discussed.

The pandemic also change the existing behaviour of the people with respect to consumption. The new behaviours trending now are loss of confidence, living in a virtual century, modifying every business to a health business, cocooning and reinvention of authority. The outcomes of the pandemic Covid19 and the way forward such as theory of achievements, dissemination of information, monitoring via digital means and self sufficient cities are put forward.

It concludes with the positive trainings provided and the positive impact on the arts.

Abstract: COVID-19 or Novel Corona virus has wreaked havoc globally. World Health Organization (WHO) declared this unprecedented situation as pandemic on 11 March, 2020. Globally it has taken more than 2 lakhs lives as of now. India too is hard hit. Since there is no medicine or vaccine effective enough to protect from the deadly onslaughts of this virus, lockdown and social distancing have come out to be the only most viable alternatives as of now globally. This is to contain the situation by breaking the human-to-human transmission chain. But the million dollar question is can lockdown be a solution in the long run? This presentation deals with the crux of the matter by looking into the scenario of some vital sectors during the lockdown that impacts the socio-economic aspects of day-to-day life in the Indian context. It raises some pertinent questions seeking a pragmatic solution from the scientific fraternity in order to mitigate the situation and to help the country remain on its toes with adequate readiness level or preparedness to deal with such eventualities in the future with much fortification of the system. On the whole the presentation aims to scrutinize what we learnt in a hard way. Are there greener pastures amidst the blue scenario? Can we look for blessings in disguise during this pandemic??

Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a kind of viral pneumonia which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has been marked as the third introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the twenty-first century. There are currently no approved treatments or preventative therapeutic strategies. Hundreds of clinical studies have been registered with the intention of discovering effective treatments. Coronaviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented, positive‐sense single‐stranded RNA virus genomes in the size ranging from 26 to 32 kilobases. Human CoV infections are are generally associated with upper respiratory tract infections, of which the signs and symptoms commonly include fever, headache, and cough; some patients may have lower respiratory tract infections. All coronaviruses contain specific genes in ORF1 downstream regions that encode proteins for viral replication, nucleocapsid and spikes formation. The glycoprotein spikes on the outer surface of coronaviruses are responsible for the attachment and entry of the virus to host cells. SARS-CoV-2 require angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a key receptor. The life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 in host cells begins its life cycle when S protein binds to the cellular receptor ACE2. After receptor binding, the conformation change in the S protein facilitates viral envelope fusion with the cell membrane through the endosomal pathway. Then SARS-CoV-2 releases RNA into the host cell. Genome RNA is translated into viral replicase polyproteins pp1a and 1ab, which are then cleaved into small products by viral proteinases. The polymerase produces a series of subgenomic mRNAs by discontinuous transcription and finally translated into relevant viral proteins. Viral proteins and genome RNA are subsequently assembled into virions in the ER and Golgi and then transported via vesicles and released out of the cell. Patients with COVID-19 show clinical manifestations including fever, nonproductive cough, dyspnea, myalgia, fatigue, normal or decreased leukocyte counts, and radiographic evidence of pneumonia, which are similar to the symptoms of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections. In response to SARS-CoV, both innate and adaptive immune systems are involved. SARS-CoV applies several mechanisms to overcome the immune response. First, it inhibits the rapid expression of interferon type 1 (IFN-1). IFN-1 is known as the “initial alarm” upon encounter with the virus that modulates the immune cells to the so-called “antiviral state”. Moreover, SARS-CoV interferes with IFN-1 signaling through inhibition of STAT-1 phosphorylation. The third defensive mechanism of SARS-CoV is immune exhaustion through exaggerated and prolonged IFN-1 production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). This process leads to the influx of activated neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes/macrophages, that in turn, results in lung immunopathology (e.g. acute respiratory distress syndrome). Finally, the resulted so-called “cytokine storm” further weakens the immune system through IFN-1-mediated T cell apoptosis. Virus-induced oxidative stress plays a critical role in the viral life cycle as well as the pathogenesis of viral diseases. The formations of oxygen reactive forms as a result of rigorous oxidative processes due to viral infection are the potent precursors of systemic cells and tissues damage. Antioxidants being an inhibitor of the oxidation process remove these free-radical intermediates by oxidized themselves, even at quite diminutive concentration, and thus have assorted physiological function in the body to stop these oxidation reactions ultimately protecting the body from harmful chain reactions. Body’s endogenous defense system against these free radicals plays an imperative role, which can further supported by the supplementation of antioxidants in the diet. Most of the natural antioxidants convert the lipid radicals into more stable products by breaking the chain. So, regular consumption of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of mortality associated with viral infections.

Abstract: COVID-19 is considered as a great challenged to modern human. The nature and kind of the virus SARS-COV-2 and the disease condition COVID-19 has influenced its impact in every nook and corner of the world. Question arises about the impact of stress of COVID-19 on human and its manifestation in post COVID lifestyle. Probably, two major time line may be earmarked in human history i.e. before and after COVID-19. Unemployment is severely visible due to COVID-19. As per International Labour Organization, four of five people globally effected due to full or partial workplace closure for the disease. In India, unemployment rate was 6.1% in last year; but due to COVID-19, the rate is increased to 26% by April, 2020. Rural unemployment is more significant due to enormous reverse migration occurred to rural areas. In this circumstances, employment generation in rural area in post COVID-19 situation will be of great challenge. A detail planning with establishing special economic zone in the form of village cluster within specific area is important to manufacture market base items with covering all the supply chain i.e. raw materials processing to manufacturing, packaging, marketing in integrated approach, so that opportunity of mass employment remain possible at every sector. A few such ventures discussed with prospect of employment including doubling farmer’s income by 2022.

Abstract: COVID-19 is a pandemic situation, the whole world is rattled with the hard-hit of this pandemic. Lockdown is to be lifted, human has to start normal days. Then let us discuss what is our possible preparation to suppress or avoid the COVID-19 effect on our daily life.

Abstract: Corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic has hugely disrupted the economic balance throughout the country. A great rescission in employment has been observed during the subsequent nation-wide lock down. Additionally, a tandem oil supply/demand imbalance and chemicals/ refined product due to industrial slow-downs and travel restriction have brought crisis to the members of industrials partners. So, considering the uneven crisis arises due to COVID-19, a brief scenario of its impact will be presented on the related topic.

Abstract: SARS-CoV-2, a newly emerged pathogen spreading worldwide, binds with high affinity to human ACE2 and uses it as an entry receptor to invade target cells. Cryo-EM structures of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in two distinct conformations, along with inhibition of spike-mediated entry by SARS-CoV polyclonal antibodies, provide a blueprint for the design of vaccines and therapeutics. Similarly, the viral 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) enzyme controls coronavirus replication and is essential for its life cycle. 3CLpro is a proven drug discovery target in the case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), hence is of interest in SAR-CoV-2. So, understanding the structure and function of the virus can provide a deep insight into the development of possible Pre and post-infection therapies for COVID‑19, in the form of vaccines, antiviral drugs, and post-infection therapies.

Abstract: COVID 19 has emerged as a cruel enemy for the Human society. When taking about the Earth System Sciences and its response towards this pandemic , a mixed match response can be drawn up. When this pandemic is a huge loss for the human society and life styles, this is being treated as a positive effect towards the healing of Earth system and its resources. Due to continuous world lock down, the world atmosphere has emerged as the cleanest one compared to the last 20 years data, where there is an estimation of 50% healing in the world ozone layer. Where there is an excess garbage accumulation of masks, medical wears, etc in tons of quantity due to COVID condition, it makes a trending threat towards the water body pollution. Comparing the large hydrosphere mass, the world water mass seems most cleaned due to no influence from human activities and industrial halt in this time. The biggest example is the River Ganges in India at Haridwar, where the water pollution board declared the water as drinkable after chlorination. Similarly, the stoppage of vehicular movements and industrial works, resulted in a cessation of Earth anthropogenic vibrations , making the seismologists able to detect very small earthquakes for a better crustal scale study. Overall this talk makes a blend towards the Earth response in COVID-19.

Abstract: The lockdown has severely disrupted India’s agricultural sector, starving it of buyers and migrant labourers as the restrictions halt people’s movements. Discussed the impact of lockdown in the agriculture and allied sectors which were severely damaged. Various factors for crisis for agriculture produce in farm level and the shortage of labour for the farming community were also discussed. In India different states were badly affected by the pandemic lockdown and their loss for the agricultural produce which are not properly harvest and marketing in proper time and proper price. Some views or examples how we can accommodate the migrated workers from the city industries to the rural native homes in different small and medium scale industry as well as in agricultural sector in better way was also discussed.

Abstract: The construction industry which generally gets busy in the January to March quarter, has been severely impacted by the spread of COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdown. From the time the WHO and Government of India declared the outbreak a pandemic, the construction industry experienced work disruptions and gradual lockdowns of its operations. After the lockdowns were declared, almost all site activities in Assam and the rest of India have come to a grinding halt. This includes government as well as private projects. This includes government as well as private projects. This will definitely impact the timely completion of timebound construction projects due to blockage of supply chain of construction materials as well as migration of daily labourers due to lock down. Quality of some of the construction materials such as cement which are stored in bulk quantities at construction site may have deteriorated or expired to be used for construction during lockdown. My presentation aims at highlighting an overview of impact of Covid-19 outbreak on construction activities along with a brief account of other positive and negative effects on mankind as a whole.

Abstract: Current lockdown situation in the country to decelerate the growth of Covid-19 pandemic has led to a serious economic downfall. Current situation can’t persist for long and the human race has to probably coexist with this virus and cope with the associated health risk till an efficient medical solution comes up. At this circumstance, prevention is the mantra to combat with this global health emergency. Aromatic herbs which are been in use through centuries as antimicrobials also have been reported to possess virucidal potency. In this talk, the speaker will discuss about the scientifically proven antiviral aromatic crops from the literature, their efficacy and major chemical constituents. Secondly, the potential role of aromatic crop cultivation and entrepreneurship based on their end-products to boost the socio-economy especially in the rural area of the country will also be depicted.

Abstract: COVID 19 drug development is the research process to develop a preventative vaccine or therapeutic prescription drug that would alleviate the severity of 2019-20 coronavirus disease (COVID 19). Internationally during April 2020, some 250 drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing 115 vaccine candidates and 153 potential therapies for COVID 19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research. Herein, we present an overview of COVID-19 drug development along with the synthesis aspects of Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, Remdesivir, Favilavir and Ifenprodil.

Abstract: After the appearance of the first FDA-approved antibody 35 years ago, antibodies have become major therapeutic agents in the treatment of many human diseases, including infectious diseases and cancer, and the use of antibodies as therapeutic/diagnostic agents is in need of the hour and expected to increase in the future. So far, a variety of strategies have been devised for engineering of these fascinating molecules to develop superior properties and functions. Recent progress in systems biology has provided more information about the structures and cellular networks of antibodies, and, in addition, recent development of biotechnology tools, particularly in regard to high-throughput screening, has made it possible to perform more intensive engineering on these substances. Based on a sound understanding and new technologies, antibodies are now being developed as more powerful drugs. In this presentation, we highlight the recent, significant progress that has been made in antibody engineering, with emphasis on enhanced production of antibodies in yeast and bacterial hosts.

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